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教学团队教学内容-彝族民间音乐简介

2019年01月02日 08:32  点击:[]

彝族民间音乐简介

 

单元词汇/短语:音乐    能歌善舞    曲调     山歌     乐器      弦乐器    管乐器      打击乐器      独奏曲      合奏曲       舞蹈     

                打歌   跳弦        罗作     跳三弦   披毡舞

彝族是我国能歌善舞的民族之一。彝族现有人口约800万,主要分布在滇、川、黔、桂、渝和东南亚的一些邻国。据初步统计,彝族可分为100多种,语言属于汉藏语系藏缅语族彝语支,分东南西北中五大方言区。在古老悠远的历史文化长河中,千里彝山被誉为“歌的海洋,舞的世界”。彝族是个崇尚火的民族,是个能歌善舞的民族。彝族民间有各式各样的传统曲调,诸如爬山调、进门调、迎客调、吃酒调、娶亲调、哭丧调等。有的曲调有固定的词,有的没有,是临时即兴填词。山歌又分男女声调,男声调雄浑高亢,女声调柔和细腻。各地山歌又有自己独特的风格,如著名歌曲《马儿快快跑》、《远方的客人请你留下来》,就是根据彝族民间曲调提炼出来的。在彝族的生活里,酒是不可或缺的亲密伙伴,酒与歌舞结下了不解之缘。无论是是高山彝寨,还是深箐农家,在喜庆节日或亲友聚会时,都会以酒歌助兴。酒歌则成为了彝族酒文化的重要载体,它把丰富多彩的彝族饮食文化演绎成了赏心悦目的盛宴,把热烈隆重的礼仪场景升华成了气冲霄汉的精神家园。彝族酒歌不仅为当地各族人民所喜闻乐见,更是给天南海北的宾客朋友留下了难忘的印象,成为了楚雄彝州一张明亮的名片。

 

彝族乐器

彝族乐器主要有月琴、葫芦笙、巴乌、唢呐、小闷笛、毕鲁、直笛、横笛、箫、三弦(大中小不同形制)、四弦等30余种。彝族的乐器种类极多,按现代乐器分类,弦乐器主要有月琴、品弦、三弦、牛角胡琴、三胡;管乐器主要有巴乌、口弦、横笛、马布、唢呐、葫芦笙、擎芦、克西觉尔、木叶等。打击乐器有铜鼓、克拉蒙、额格子膜等。其演奏形式和体彩有独奏曲和合奏曲等。

彝族月琴,又称弦子,属于弹弦乐器。音箱圆形的称库竹、棱形的称八角琴。月琴流行于云南省楚雄、巍山、四川省凉山、贵州省威宁等地。月琴可用于独奏或为彝剧及民间歌舞花灯伴奏,舞者常边弹边舞,二百年前已在彝族地区流行。月琴在彝族人民的生活中占有重要地位,无论是日常生活男女青年的谈情说爱,这是在节庆日子,都少不了月琴的弹奏。尤其在节庆日子,小伙子弹着月琴,而姑娘们则和着琴声,或拍手或拉手,跳出多种优美的 舞蹈动手。随着优美的月琴声,让自己的情感随之奔放,跳出彝族人民的幸福和欢快,优美的琴声和欢快的歌舞,显出彝族人民坦荡的胸襟和对美好未来的向往。彝族月琴乐曲丰富多彩,各民族、各地区又有所不同。

  彝族的葫芦笙流传地域广阔,多为五管或六管,有的地区还采用木制或铜制笙斗,笙斗到吹口一般长25厘米左右。在四川省凉山州常见的为八管葫芦笙,使用 竹簧,在葫芦柄处连接一 个较粗的竹管为吹口。在彝族民间,葫芦笙是踏歌 和《葫芦笙舞》的主要伴奏乐器。传统乐曲有《迎亲调》、《送亲调》、《串姑娘调》、《过 山调》、《放羊调》、《赶街调》、《过年调》、《摆饭调》、《打歌调》和《舞曲》等。

 

 

 

                                            

 

 

 

彝族舞蹈

彝族舞蹈是流传在彝族地区的舞蹈。歌舞是彝族人民生活中的一项重要内容,其形式丰富多彩,多数是模仿生产劳动时的动作而成。彝族舞蹈有五种类型,分为打歌、跳弦、罗作、跳三弦、披毡舞。打歌包括打跳跳脚左脚舞跳歌跌腿跳月(即跳乐)等圆圈舞。跳弦因舞者双手持烟盒[7] 边敲边舞,故也被称为《烟盒舞》。罗作也称罗素,是流行于云南省红河南岸彝族支系尼苏人中的另一种圆圈舞。曲调欢愉跳跃,节奏鲜明而强烈,伴之以快速摆手、错步、踏脚等舞蹈动作,特别受到青年们的喜爱。跳三弦也称大三弦、跳月,是云南省中部地区彝族支系阿细人、撒尼人喜爱的自娱性舞蹈。在大、中、小三弦和高、中、低不同音色的竹笛伴奏下的《跳三弦》,是火把节不可缺少的舞蹈。披毡舞是四川省凉山地区彝族所特有的舞蹈形式。舞者以披毡为道具,通过双臂的伸展、收拢、摆动与身体旋转,来模仿鹰、熊的姿态。该舞现已成为彝族的代表性表演舞蹈。

 

           

             

 

 

单元练习:

1.       请用英语概述彝族民间音乐的特点。

2.       用英语简单介绍彝族舞蹈。

3.       小组合作完成一部5-8分钟对彝族民间音乐简介的短剧。

 

 

 

 

A Brief Introduction to Yi People’s Folk Music

 

Vocabulary and Phrases: music; being good at singing and dancing; musical tunes; folk songs; musical instruments; stringed musical instruments; wind musical instruments; percussion musical instruments; solo; ensemble; dancing;; singing; dancing to Sanxian; Pizhan Dancing

 

 Yi people belong to one of those ethnic groups who are good at singing and dancing. Its population is about eight million. Most of them live in Yunnan Province, Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province, Guanxi Autonomous Region, Chongqing, and some neighboring Asian countries. According to some statistics, Yi people can be divided into more than 100 categories. Their language belongs to Sino-Tibetan Language Family. It can be roughly divided into five dialect regions, namely regions of East, South, West, North, and Center. In its ancient and long history, the regions populated by Yi people have been referred to as the sea of songs, and the world of dances. Fire is beloved by Yi people. Yi people are good at singing and dancing. They have a wide variety of traditional musical tunes, which include mountain-climbing tunes, door-entrance tunes, guests-welcoming tunes, wine-drinking tunes, wedding tunes, funeral tunes, etc. Some tunes have fixed lyrics, while others not. The composition of their lyrics may be impromptu. The tunes of the folk songs are classified into two categories, i.e. male voice and female voice. The male voice sounds vigorous and firm, while the latter sounds gentle and exquisite. The folk songs in different regions have their unique styles. For instance, some famous songs such as Horses Running Fastand Please Stay, Guests from Afar, have been abstracted from the folk musical tunes of Yi people. Wine is an indispensable part of their daily lives, and it has become closely connected with songs. Toast songs are often sung on significant occasions such as weddings and funerals. Toast songs has become a important carrier of Yi peoples wine culture. They have transformed the abundant and colorful food cultures of Yi people into spectacular feasts. They have also raised the enthusiastic and ceremonies scenes to a higher level of dauntless spirit. Yi peoples toast songs have been beloved by different ethnic groups and guests from all over China are deeply impressed by them. Therefore, they have become a representative of Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture.

 

Yi People’s Musical Instruments

  Yi People’s Musical Instruments consist of more than 30 categories which include Yueqin, Hulu Sheng, Suona, Xiao Mendi, Bilu, Zhidi, HengdiXiao, Sanxian, Sixian, etc. According to the modern categorization of musical instruments, the stringed instruments include Yueqin, Pinxian, Sanxian, Niujiao Huqin, Sanhu; The wind instruments include Bawu, Kouxian, Hengdi,  Mabu, Suona, Hulu Sheng, Qinglu, Kexi Jue’er, and Muye, etc.; The percussion instruments include Bronze drum, Kelameng, Ergezimo, etc. Their performance forms are solos and ensembles, and so on.

Yueqin, also known as Xianzi, belongs to one of the stringed musical instruments. Yueqin is popular in such regions as Chuxiong and Weishan in Yunnan province, Liangshan in Sichuan Province, Weining in Guizhou  Province , etc. Yueqin can also be used for solo or accompanying Yi Operas or folk song & dance, i.e. “Festival Lanterns”. Dancers’ dancing while playing Yuwqin has been popular for nearly two hundred years in those regions densely populated by Yi people. Yueqin has played a significant part in Yi people’s daily lives. It has been played on occasions of romance and festivals. Particularly on festivals, the young men play Yueqin while the young ladies clap their hands, and dance different graceful dances to the music, hand in hand. They express their feelings and their happiness by means of dances. The beautiful Yueqin music and happy dances manifest the Yi people’s broad-mindedness and their yearning for a brighter future. Yi people’s Yueqin music is abundant and colorful. It differs from people to people, and place to place.

The cucurbit flutes of Yi people are widespread. Most of them have five or six pipes. They may be made of wood or bronze in some regions. The distance between their tips and mouthpiece is about 25 centimeters. The cucurbit flutes in Liangshan, Sichuan Province have eight pipes and bamboo reeds. Their mouthpieces are thick bamboo pipes located on their handles. Among Yi peoplethe cucurbit flutes are mainly used for accompanying singers and “Cucurbit Flute Dances”. The traditional music pieces include “Music for Wedding” , “Music for Herding Sheep”, “Music for Going to Market”, “Music for Chinese New Year”, “Music for  Serving Food”, and “Dance Music”, etc.

 

Yi People’s Dances

  Yi People’s dances refer to those dances popular in regions populated by Yi ethnic groups. Songs and dances play an important role in Yi people’s daily lives. Their forms are abundant and colorful. Most of them are derived from the imitation of the actions of their labors. Yi people’s dances can be roughly divided into five categories, namely “Dage dance”, “Tiaoxian Dance”, “Luozuo Dance”, “Tiao Sanxian Dance”, and “Pizhan Dance. “Dage” include circle dances such as “Datiao”, “Foot-stamping Dance”, “Left-foot Dance”, “Dancing and Singing”, and “Dance to Music”, etc. “Tiaoxian Dance” is also referred to as “Cigarette Case Dance” because the dances knock at the cigarette cases while they are dancing. “Luozuo Dance” is also referred to as “Luosu”, which is another type of circle dance popular among a different branch of Yi people, i.e. Nisu people populated on the west bank of Honghe River. This kind of music sounds delightful, vigorous, and rhythmic,  accompanied by behaviors such as swift handshake, walk and foot-stampings. Therefore, it is particularly beloved by youngsters. “Tiao-Sanxian Dance” is also referred to as Da Sanxian, Tiaoyue. It is a kind of self-entertaining dance beloved by Ahxi people and Sani people, another two different branches of Yi people in central parts of Yunnan Province. “Tiao Sanxian Dance”, which is accompanied by big-sized, middle-sizd and small-sized Sanxian, and bamboo flutes of high-pitch, middle-pitched and low-pitched bamboo flutes. It is indispensable to “Torch Festival”.  “Pizhan Dance” is a unique form of dance among Yi people in liangshan Region, Sichuan Province. The dancers use Pizhan as stage props. They imitate the postures of eagles and bears by stretching , collecting, and shaking their arms and rotating of their bodies. This dance has already become a representative dance of Yi people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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