单元词汇/短语：音乐 能歌善舞 曲调 山歌 乐器 弦乐器 管乐器 打击乐器 独奏曲 合奏曲 舞蹈
打歌 跳弦 罗作 跳三弦 披毡舞
彝族的葫芦笙流传地域广阔，多为五管或六管，有的地区还采用木制或铜制笙斗，笙斗到吹口一般长25厘米左右。在四川省凉山州常见的为八管葫芦笙，使用 竹簧，在葫芦柄处连接一 个较粗的竹管为吹口。在彝族民间，葫芦笙是“踏歌”、“打 歌”和《葫芦笙舞》的主要伴奏乐器。传统乐曲有《迎亲调》、《送亲调》、《串姑娘调》、《过 山调》、《放羊调》、《赶街调》、《过年调》、《摆饭调》、《打歌调》和《舞曲》等。
A Brief Introduction to Yi People’s Folk Music
Vocabulary and Phrases: music; being good at singing and dancing; musical tunes; folk songs; musical instruments; stringed musical instruments; wind musical instruments; percussion musical instruments; solo; ensemble; dancing;; singing; dancing to Sanxian; Pizhan Dancing
Yi people belong to one of those ethnic groups who are good at singing and dancing. Its population is about eight million. Most of them live in Yunnan Province, Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province, Guanxi Autonomous Region, Chongqing, and some neighboring Asian countries. According to some statistics, Yi people can be divided into more than 100 categories. Their language belongs to Sino-Tibetan Language Family. It can be roughly divided into five dialect regions, namely regions of East, South, West, North, and Center. In its ancient and long history, the regions populated by Yi people have been referred to as “the sea of songs, and the world of dances”. Fire is beloved by Yi people. Yi people are good at singing and dancing. They have a wide variety of traditional musical tunes, which include mountain-climbing tunes, door-entrance tunes, guests-welcoming tunes, wine-drinking tunes, wedding tunes, funeral tunes, etc. Some tunes have fixed lyrics, while others not. The composition of their lyrics may be impromptu. The tunes of the folk songs are classified into two categories, i.e. male voice and female voice. The male voice sounds vigorous and firm, while the latter sounds gentle and exquisite. The folk songs in different regions have their unique styles. For instance, some famous songs such as “Horses Running Fast”and “Please Stay, Guests from Afar”, have been abstracted from the folk musical tunes of Yi people. Wine is an indispensable part of their daily lives, and it has become closely connected with songs. Toast songs are often sung on significant occasions such as weddings and funerals. Toast songs has become a important carrier of Yi people’s wine culture. They have transformed the abundant and colorful food cultures of Yi people into spectacular feasts. They have also raised the enthusiastic and ceremonies scenes to a higher level of dauntless spirit. Yi people’s toast songs have been beloved by different ethnic groups and guests from all over China are deeply impressed by them. Therefore, they have become a representative of Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture.
Yi People’s Musical Instruments
Yi People’s Musical Instruments consist of more than 30 categories which include Yueqin, Hulu Sheng, Suona, Xiao Mendi, Bilu, Zhidi, Hengdi，Xiao, Sanxian, Sixian, etc. According to the modern categorization of musical instruments, the stringed instruments include Yueqin, Pinxian, Sanxian, Niujiao Huqin, Sanhu; The wind instruments include Bawu, Kouxian, Hengdi, Mabu, Suona, Hulu Sheng, Qinglu, Kexi Jue’er, and Muye, etc.; The percussion instruments include Bronze drum, Kelameng, Ergezimo, etc. Their performance forms are solos and ensembles, and so on.
Yueqin, also known as Xianzi, belongs to one of the stringed musical instruments. Yueqin is popular in such regions as Chuxiong and Weishan in Yunnan province, Liangshan in Sichuan Province, Weining in Guizhou Province , etc. Yueqin can also be used for solo or accompanying Yi Operas or folk song & dance, i.e. “Festival Lanterns”. Dancers’ dancing while playing Yuwqin has been popular for nearly two hundred years in those regions densely populated by Yi people. Yueqin has played a significant part in Yi people’s daily lives. It has been played on occasions of romance and festivals. Particularly on festivals, the young men play Yueqin while the young ladies clap their hands, and dance different graceful dances to the music, hand in hand. They express their feelings and their happiness by means of dances. The beautiful Yueqin music and happy dances manifest the Yi people’s broad-mindedness and their yearning for a brighter future. Yi people’s Yueqin music is abundant and colorful. It differs from people to people, and place to place.
The cucurbit flutes of Yi people are widespread. Most of them have five or six pipes. They may be made of wood or bronze in some regions. The distance between their tips and mouthpiece is about 25 centimeters. The cucurbit flutes in Liangshan, Sichuan Province have eight pipes and bamboo reeds. Their mouthpieces are thick bamboo pipes located on their handles. Among Yi people，the cucurbit flutes are mainly used for accompanying singers and “Cucurbit Flute Dances”. The traditional music pieces include “Music for Wedding” , “Music for Herding Sheep”, “Music for Going to Market”, “Music for Chinese New Year”, “Music for Serving Food”, and “Dance Music”, etc.
Yi People’s Dances
Yi People’s dances refer to those dances popular in regions populated by Yi ethnic groups. Songs and dances play an important role in Yi people’s daily lives. Their forms are abundant and colorful. Most of them are derived from the imitation of the actions of their labors. Yi people’s dances can be roughly divided into five categories, namely “Dage dance”, “Tiaoxian Dance”, “Luozuo Dance”, “Tiao Sanxian Dance”, and “Pizhan Dance. “Dage” include circle dances such as “Datiao”, “Foot-stamping Dance”, “Left-foot Dance”, “Dancing and Singing”, and “Dance to Music”, etc. “Tiaoxian Dance” is also referred to as “Cigarette Case Dance” because the dances knock at the cigarette cases while they are dancing. “Luozuo Dance” is also referred to as “Luosu”, which is another type of circle dance popular among a different branch of Yi people, i.e. Nisu people populated on the west bank of Honghe River. This kind of music sounds delightful, vigorous, and rhythmic, accompanied by behaviors such as swift handshake, walk and foot-stampings. Therefore, it is particularly beloved by youngsters. “Tiao-Sanxian Dance” is also referred to as Da Sanxian, Tiaoyue. It is a kind of self-entertaining dance beloved by Ahxi people and Sani people, another two different branches of Yi people in central parts of Yunnan Province. “Tiao Sanxian Dance”, which is accompanied by big-sized, middle-sizd and small-sized Sanxian, and bamboo flutes of high-pitch, middle-pitched and low-pitched bamboo flutes. It is indispensable to “Torch Festival”. “Pizhan Dance” is a unique form of dance among Yi people in liangshan Region, Sichuan Province. The dancers use Pizhan as stage props. They imitate the postures of eagles and bears by stretching , collecting, and shaking their arms and rotating of their bodies. This dance has already become a representative dance of Yi people.