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教学团队教学内容-彝族民间手工艺品简介

2019年01月02日 08:33  点击:[]

                                        彝族民间手工艺品简介

Introduction of Yi Folk Handicrafts

单元词汇/短语(Key Words/Phrases): 工艺品Handicraft  工艺Craft  造型Sculpt  款式Style   图案纹饰Design and Pattern   审美观念Aesthetic Idea  色彩配置Color Configuration   漆器Lacquer ware   皮制漆器Leather Lacquer   木制漆器Wooden Lacquer  刺绣Embroidery   绣迹Embroidery Stitch   具象图案Representation Pattern   抽象图案Abstract pattern   色彩强烈Intense Color   色彩淡雅Quietly  Elegant  Color 

 

彝族民族民间手工艺品蕴藏着深厚的文化内涵。彝族手工艺品的造型、款式和图案,往往是表达了彝族人民祁求美好幸福生活的愿望。反映了彝族人民特有的审美观念、信仰宗教和风俗习惯,其图案纹饰、色彩配置,皆有彝族民族文化背景。

Yi folk handicrafts contain a deep cultural connotation. The sculpt , style and pattern have tended to show the best wishes of Yi people praying for happy lives .They have also reflected Yi’s own aesthetic idea, religion, manner and custom. The ethnologic culture background has also been shown in their designs, patterns and color configurations.

 

彝族民族民间手工艺品以实用为主,注重功能,同时力求美观,把功能和审美要求完善地结合起来。同时又都作了艺术加工,达到实用与审美的统一。大多数彝族手工艺品皆就地取材,因材施艺,如充分利用云南丰富的资源进行艺术加工,使天然资源为人们生活服务。彝族民族民间手工艺,以手工劳动为主,家庭副业为主。其技艺的传承,以家庭世代相传为主,这就使各种手工艺及其产品,具有鲜明的个性,因人因艺而异的独特风格。

Yi folk handicrafts give priority to practicability, and focus on functions and beautiful, combining the function with aesthetic request perfectly. Meanwhile, through some artistic polishing, they get the unification between practicability and aesthetic. Most of the handicrafts just use the local materials, and make it be what it ought to be, like making good use of abundant natural resources in Yunnan through the artistic polishing, which serves for human lives greatly. The reforms of Yi folk are manual labor-based and household sideline-based. The succession of rafting skill is mainly through generations, which calls varies of handicrafts and their products for distinctive personalities and unique style that varies from art to art.

 

彝族漆器工艺(Yi  Lacquer  Craft )

在灿烂的彝族文化艺术中,漆器工艺是一枝奇葩。漆器工艺从古至今都在彝族人民生活中占有重要地位,它与彝族人民有着不解之缘。漆器的精湛工艺及作者绝妙的构思,跃然于漆器上,流传千古。古代彝族漆器从材料的性质可分为皮制漆器和木制漆器两大类。以使用范围可分为餐具漆器,即圆盘餐桌、木盔、木盘、高脚木盔、木碗、木勺、皮碗等。漆器的造型都各具特点,各具风格。最为绝妙而富有科学性的是彝族酒壶。它的制作独特精美,把彝族人民的智慧、审美能力融于酒壶上,取名为"萨尔博"。彝族彩色漆器从古到今仍不超过三色,即黑、红、黄三色,其它装饰用色同样以这三色居多。在彝族绘画,工艺美术方面形成了以黑为主,与红、黄二色相配合的彩绘艺术风格。以黑、红、黄为主的色调,尤以餐具、酒具和马鞍,铠甲上的绘色最为典型。在历史发展的长河中,不同时代,不同民族的色彩观与色彩艺术是各具特征的,是构成民族文化的重要内容。

The lacquer craft is a blossoming flower in the brilliant Yi culture art. Occupying an important position in Yi people’s lives, it contains an indissoluble bond with Yi people. The brilliant craft of lacquer and designers’ fabulous ideas have been shown lively on the lacquer and lasted forever. The ancient Yi lacquer can be divided into two parts, which are leather lacquer and wooden lacquer. It can also be regarded as a lacquer tableware, which like circular table, wooden helmet, wooden plate, stilt wooden helmet, wooden bowl, wooden spoon and leather bowl, etc. The lacquer craft differs from one another in sculpt. The most splendiferous but scientific design is Yi flagon. Its process is unique and delicate, permeating with Yi people’s wisdom and aesthetic ability, whose name is “Sarbo”. Yi colorized lacquer has remained less than three colors in all ages, which are black, red and yellow, then other decorative colors mainly remain these three colors. Referring to Yi painting, it has formed the decorative art style of giving the priority of black and coordinate with red and yellow in terms of art and craft. Colors based on black, red and yellow are most typical, especially for the painting colors on tableware, flagon and saddle. In the long river of history development, different natural views of color and color art are characteristic at different times, which makes it the important issue of natural culture.   

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彝族刺绣(Yi  Embroidery)

彝族刺绣种类繁多、丰富多彩,是彝族传统文化的一种体现。刺绣,古称针绣,是用绣针引彩线,按设计的花纹在纺织品上刺绣运针,以绣迹构成花纹图案的一种工艺。彝族刺绣作品中,有具象图案,也有纯粹的抽象图案。彝族刺绣讲究韵律和节奏,色彩或强烈或淡雅,充分展示出彝族刺绣的魅力。刺绣内容有图腾、传说、动植物、符号和文字等。色彩以黑、黄、红、绿、蓝为主要颜色。历史上黒彝在彝族的社会地位中处于统治地位,他们崇尚黑色,以黑为尊贵。彝族在以前大多生活在红色的土地上,因而对红色也有着特殊的偏好和崇拜意识。红色代表了火焰寓意着生生不息的生命力。蓝色代表了蓝天,象征了彝族人拥有比蓝天还纯净的内心及更为高远的精神追求。黄色象征着太阳,是对自然的崇拜和对五谷丰登的期望。

It is an embodiment of Yi traditional culture that Yi embroidery supports a wide range of style, making it rich and fascinating. Embroidery, historically speaking, is the needlework, which is a craft that according to the design pattern, operate embroidery on the textile with embroidery needle threads, then constitute patterns with embroidery Stitch. Among Yi embroidery works, there are representation Pattern and pure abstract pattern. Yi embroidery is particular about rhythm and cadence, no matter the color is intense or quietly elegant, both of which can fully display glamour of Yi embroidery. The content of embroidery is mainly about totem, legend, animal and plant, symbol and words, etc. The main colors are black, yellow, red, green and blue. In Yi history, the Black Yi’s statue is in the driver's seat, and they advocate and value black. In the past time, most of Yi lived on the red lands, so they also have special preference and worship of red. Red stands for fire with evolutionary vitality. Blue stands for sky, which represents that Yi’s heart is more pure than the blue sky, as well as their higher spiritual pursuit. Yellow stands for the sun, and it’s worship of the nature and expectation of bumper grain harvests.

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单元练习:

1.  请用英语概述彝族漆器的特点。

2.  用英语简单介绍彝族刺绣。

3.  小组合作完成一部5-8分钟对彝族工艺品简介的短剧。

Unit  Exercises:

1.     Please use English to summarize the characteristics of Yi lacquer.

2.     Please introduce Yi embroidery briefly in English.

3.     Please cooperate with your group to complete a short play about the brief introduction of Yi folk handicrafts in 58 minutes.

 

 

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