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教学团队教学内容-彝族饮食习俗简介

2019年01月02日 08:37  点击:[]

彝族饮食习俗简介

A Brief Introduction to Yi People’s Diet Customs

 

单元词汇/短语 (unit words/phrases)  特色食品specialty food   燕麦 oat

炒面 parched flour  酸菜汤 pickled soup  肚杂 haslet  花椒 zanthoxylum  scallion

芫荽 corainder  羊汤锅 mutton soup pot  坨坨肉meat block  荞粑粑buckwheat cake

氨基酸 amino acid  转转酒 circulation of liquor  酒歌 liquor song

 

饮食是人类生存的必需品。由于居住地域广、地形复杂、气候多样,导致彝区饮食文化丰富多彩。彝族平日以荞麦、洋芋、玉米等为主食。洋芋一般是整煮、整烧;玉米、荞麦、大麦多磨成粗粉做粑粑食用;燕麦主要是制成炒面。肉类有猪、牛、羊、鸡等,以羊肉为贵。彝家待客“有酒便是宴”,而对菜肴则不甚在意。彝族有“大口喝酒,大口吃肉”的饮食文化。

Diet is necessary for human survival. Yi people have rich and colorful food culture because of their vast living regions, complex terrain and diverse climate. Yi people mainly live on buckwheat, potatoes and corns. Potatoes are usually boiled or burned as a whole. Corns, buckwheat and barley are usually milled into coarse flour to make cakes, while the oat is mainly used to make parched flour. The meat they eat includes pork, beef, mutton and chicken, but mutton is a rarity. Liquor is indispensable for them to treat a guest, while food is not much minded. Yi people have a particular diet style of “drinking liquor and eating meat in a wild way”.

 

彝族的特色食品 (Yi People’s Specialty Food)

砣砣肉是彝区的一道特色菜,具有肉质鲜美,油而不腻的特点,有点类似于新疆的“手扒羊肉”。彝族将猪、牛、羊宰杀后连骨带肉切成拳头大小的块状,用清水煮至八成熟,然后捞到簸箕内,撒上盐来回晃动肉块,等盐浸入肉中即可食用。吃的时候,除了放盐,不放任何作料,直接用手取之食之,不用碗筷。这道菜制作的时候由于火候掌握得适当,制作出来的肉又鲜又香,别有风味,另外,在享用这道菜的时候,你还可以配上彝族土法研制的一种酸菜汤,能够去除油腻。

Meat block is a special dish in the Yi people-inhabited areas. The dish has tender taste and it is fat but not greasy, which is similar to the “Grilled Lamb Chops” in Xinjiang. Yi people butcher the pigs, cattle and goats and cut them into blocks as big as fists. When the meat blocks are 80 percent boiled in a pot, they put them in a winnowing basket, spread salt and shake the blocks so that the salt will penetrate the meat. When it is served on the table, you can only add salt and have it with hand, not the chopsticks. Because of the perfect fire control, this dish has tender taste and special flavor. In addition, when you are en­joying this dish, you can have a kind of pickled soup that is made by the special method of Yi people, which is helpful for get rid of the grease.

 

羊汤锅是彝族常用来招待客人的一道荤菜。羊汤锅是选用肥壮的黑山羊,宰杀后去毛,开膛清洗内脏,用火燎去羊头和羊脚上的毛,在炭火上烤黄后用锤击碎内骨,最后连羊血、肚杂、羊头全部切成一锅煮,是真正的全羊汤锅。香味溢出后,移到小火上慢煮,待肉煮熟时,就可以边煮边吃。羊汤锅煮的时候仅放盐,不加其他任何调料,原汁原味,但食用时会用一个小碗另放花椒、胡椒面、葱、芫荽或薄荷作为蘸水。通常主人家都是在地上铺上松毛,食用的时候,大家都坐在松毛地上,围成一圈,羊肉放在中间。大家边吃羊肉,边喝酒、唱歌和跳舞。

Mutton soup pot is a meat dish which is often used by Yi people to entertain guests. To make the mutton soup pot, first Yi people will pick a stout black goat, then slaughter and skin it. Next they take out all its offal and remove the fur from its head and feet. After roasting the goat till it turns yellow and cracking its internal bones, they put the blood, haslet and head into a pot and cook the stuff into the authentic mutton soup pot. Once the delicious smell comes out, they reduce the heating degree but continue to cook the soup until the mutton is done when they start to eat the mutton and have the soup. The only sauce they add to the soup is salt, but while eating they will make some special sauce by mixing zanthoxylum, pepper, scallion, coriander leaves or mint together, which is usually put in a small bowl or tray. Usually the host will spread some pine leaves on the ground, so people can sit on the pine leaves in a circle with the mutton pot in the center. While eating mutton people can drinksing and dance.

 

荞粑粑是一种营养丰富的彝家美食。苦荞具有清凉爽口、又纯又香的特点,同时具有人体需要的多种氨基酸,能强身健体,医治糖尿病,味道略有些清苦。彝族人认为荞是五谷之王。过去,苦荞是彝族的主食,现在,由于产量低,种植面积越来越小,只有在过节的时候,彝家人才会拿出来招待客人。彝家人通常是把荞面掺水调稀后,倒入热锅中用微火自然成饼,然后再放在火塘边烧熟或在火灰中焐热。在彝区,山地一般离家较远,早上出门干活时,做上几个荞粑粑带上,中午即可作为午饭,既方便又营养。

Buckwheat cake is a kind of nutritious food in Yi region. Buckwheat tastes cool, pleasant and delicious with various amino acids that human body needs, which can keep people healthy, and cure diabetes, and its taste is slightly bitter. Yi people believe buckwheat is the king of all kinds of grains. In the past, buckwheat was the staple food of Yi people, whereas now, due to low production, the areas sown with buckwheat are declining. In fact, Yi people only serve buckwheat when they have guests coming to visit during festivals. Yi people make their own buckwheat cakes. Firstly they blend buckwheat flour with water; secondly they put the mixture into a pot with fire under it and the ingredients of mixture form a cake naturally. In the Yi people-inhabited areas, the farmlands are far away from people’s houses, so Yi people usually take some buckwheat cakes with them when they leave home to work in the morning. And they can have convenient and nutritious lunch in the fields.

 

荞粑粑_副本坨坨肉_副本羊汤锅_副本 

 

彝族的酒文化(Yi People’s Liquor Culture)

彝族极喜饮酒。无论在家里或户外,几位彝胞碰到一起,便拿出酒来,席地而坐,围成一个圆圈。酒碗或酒瓶,不停地从一人手中传到另一人手中,依次轮饮,倾心叙家常。这种喝酒方式被称为“转转酒”。酒在彝家日常生活中占据着极为重要的地位。彝族人待客热情,每有客至,必以酒待客。“三道酒”是彝族接待贵客的礼节。第一道为拦门酒,即在门口迎接客人。吹响长号、唢呐,弹起月琴,载歌载舞,欢唱“迎客调”。第二道为祝福酒,即在酒宴上向远方的贵客敬上双杯美酒,同时献上祝酒歌。第三道酒为留客酒,即客人要离开主人家时,主人送客到门口时请客人喝下离别时最后一杯酒。敬酒时,长号、唢呐同时吹奏“留客调”,男女青年欢歌起舞。敬三道酒是彝家接待贵客的最高礼仪。

Yi people are extremely fond of drinking liquor. Wherever they meet, indoors or outdoors, a couple of them will take out their liquor and sit on the ground in a circle, with bowls or bottles of liquor passing from one hand to another in turn, chatting heartily about their daily life. This way of drinking is called“Circulation of Liquor”. Liquor plays an important role in Yi people’s daily life. Yi people are hospitable, so they always serve liquor for their guests. The“Three Cups of Liquor” is the etiquette for treating honorable guests.The first cup of liquor is served in front of the door where the host is greeting guests. Yi people play trombone, suona and yueqin, dance in concert and sing the greeting song. The second cup of liquor is for toast, namely toasting two cups of liquor for honorable guests from remote places while singing a song. The third cup of liquor is for inviting guests to stay. That is, the host asks the guests to drink the last cup of wine when they see guests off. Meanwhile, they play the detention song with trombone and suona, and young people sing and dance. The three cups of liquor are the highest etiquette of Yi people to treat their guests.

 

酒歌是彝族生活、思想和性格的呈现。酒歌既体现了彝族待客的真诚,也体现了彝族的豪爽。在一些重要彝族节日的迎宾仪式上,就有彝家姑娘小伙身着节日的盛装,端着酒杯,盛满酒请来宾品尝。如果客人不喝,主人会生气,认为是看不起他们。这让人不得不想起彝族那首被称为“最霸道”的敬酒歌:“阿老表,端酒喝,阿表姝,端酒喝。阿老表,喜欢不喜欢也要喝,阿表妹,喜欢不喜欢也要喝,喜欢呢也要喝,不喜欢也要喝,管你喜欢不喜欢也要喝。”

Liquor songs are the manifestations of the life, thought and characteristics of Yi people. Liquor songs display Yi people’s sincerity and frankness. In the greeting ceremony of important festivals, young girls and boys of Yi, wearing festival dresses, invite guests to enjoy the full cup of liquor. If the guests do not drink, the host will be angry because Yi people think that refusal of drinking means the guests look down upon them. This reminds us a high-handed song for toast of Yi people. Here are the lyrics,“My brothers, drink your liquor; my sisters, drink your liquor. My brothers, drink your liquor whether you like it or not. My sisters, drink your liquor whether you like it or not. You have to drink your liquor whether you like it or not.”

彝族敬酒歌_副本转转酒_副本 

单元练习:

1.请用英语概述彝族的饮食特点。

2.请扮演导游用英语简单介绍彝族的特色食品。

3.请扮演导游用英语简单介绍彝族的酒文化。

 

Unit Exercises

1. Please use English to summarize the characteristics of Yi people’s diet.

2. Please act as a tourist guide to use English to give a brief introduction to Yi people’s specialty food.

3. Please act as a tourist guide to use English to give a brief introduction to Yi people’s liquor culture.

 

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